Readability and Visuals in Medical Research Information Forms for Children and Adolescents

Petronella Grootens-Wiegers, Martine C. De Vries, Tessa E. Vossen, Jos M. Van den Broek

Children are often-overlooked receivers of medical information, and little research addresses their information needs. However, young children are capable of understanding medical concepts, and they express the desire to be informed. This study addresses the quality of medical research information forms for children in the Netherlands, by assessing text readability and the role of visuals. Children’s reading books, nonfiction books, and textbooks were used as comparison. Seven focus groups were conducted to identify children’s preferences and needs for text and supporting visuals. We argue that the use of visuals is a powerful, but neglected, tool to improve medical information for minors.



Is it believable when it’s scientific? How scientific discourse style influences laypeople’s resolution of conflicts

Rainer Bromme, Lisa Scharrer, Marc Stadtler, Johanna Hömberg and Ronja Torspecken

Scientific texts are a genre in which adherence to specific discourse conventions allows for conclusions on the scientific integrity of the information and thus on its validity. This study examines whether genre-typical features of scientific discourse influence how laypeople handle conflicting science-based knowledge claims. In two experiments with a total of N = 120 participants we investigated to what extent laypeople take into account such features when judging the “scientificness” and credibility of conflicting knowledge claims about medical issues and issues related to climate change and when determining their personal agreement with conflicting claims. Results showed that laypeople use genre-typical discourse features to evaluate the scientificness and credibility of conflicting science-based information. However, depending on the scientific topic, they appear to distinguish between what they judge to be credible and what they personally believe to be true. Educational implications of the findings are discussed.